- Persistence, known as ORM in the past.
- Integration, connectors to access packaged applications and/or exotic legacy data sources.
- Web Services.
In the middle, between persistence and services you will find SDO, where in the past you knew JDO or JPA.
Between Integration and services, EAI is evolving into ESBs. It is more standardized and relies on XML and Web Services but at the end it is still asynchronous messaging.
To some extent, Data Services are an extension of mapping to services in a disconnected model.
There are some other related technologies: